Normal Mapping. When using normal mapping in Maya to add textures to models you need to make sure that you set your colour map to raw. The reason why you should do this because normal maps contain scalar data and not colour data. Normal mapping is mostly used to re-detail 3D models. Normal mapping is a technique used to fake lighting, bumps and dents
Displacement Mapping. Displacement mapping, usually used on computers is a technique in contrast to bring together bump mapping, normal mapping and parallax mapping.
Bump maps. Bump maps are used to simulate bumps and wrinkles onto 3D models. Bump maps are also know as an illusion.