12 principles of Animation

1. Squash and Stretch – This is the most important principle of the 12. The purpose of this was to give weight and flexibility to objects that had been drawn. For example, a bouncing  ball.

2. Anticipation – These shows the audience that the character is going to do something. For example, a character will bend their knees when he/she is about to jump. Another example is a golfer swinging his club backwards before swinging it forwards to take the shot.

Image result for jumping gif

3. Staging – Staging is used to grab the audiences attention, and make it clear that something important is about to happen. The camera’s position is also important when staging.

4. Straight Ahead – means drawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning to end. Straight Ahead also creates more fluid and dynamic movement, and is better for producing more realistic scenes

5. Follow through and overlapping – these are to very closely related techniques which helps the character move more realistic. This principle help give the impression that the characters follow the laws of physics. The overlapping technique is a tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates.

6. Arc – swinging an axe from behind your head over your head making an arc when the axe is swung.

7. Timing – Timing refers to the amount of drawings or frames in an action, which translates to the speed of a film or clip.

8. Slow in and Slow out – The movement of a person or object needs time to accelerate and come to a complete stop. With the principle slow in and low out animation looks more realistic.

9. Appeal – A person or object doing something that has surprised the audience. A hard to read face wont appeal to the audience as much as a happy clear face.

10 – Secondary Action – When a person is walking the secondary action that will come from this is the arms swaying back and forth. Another example of secondary action is when a horse runs the secondary action is the tail following the movement of the body.

11 – Exaggeration – Every face emotion and every action can be changed to have a bigger impact on the viewers. If a person is angry make the person more angrier.

12 – Follow though and Overlapping – Overlapping is objects that are attached to a person keep moving when the person has came to a stop. An example of follow through is when a person is landing from a jump the persons knees bend to control the landing.





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